Tuesday, April 22, 2014


          Process whereby magma flows into the earth’s crust or onto the surface
          When magma reaches the surface, it is called lava
          The type of landform that arises depends on:
                          1.            Location where the magma cools or solidifies
                          2.            Nature of the magma (viscosity, temperature)
                          3.            Means by which the magma
                reaches the surface
Location where the magma cools
          When magma enters lines of weakness such as faults in the earth’s crust, it may cool underground to form intrusive landforms
          When the magma (lava) cools and solidifies on the surface, it forms extrusive landforms
Viscosity of the magma
          Viscosity refers to the magma’s resistance to flow
          It depends on the silica content and the temperature of the magma
          Basic magma has low silica content, higher temperatures and lower viscosity (i.e. more fluid)
                è When the magma reaches the surface, it moves         quickly and covers large areas before solidifying
          Acid magma has high silica content, lower temperatures and higher viscosity (i.e. less fluid)
                è The lava moves slowly and solidifies quickly
Means by which the magma reaches the surface
          Acid magma is associated with explosive eruptions
          As the magma rises from deep within the earth, the dissolved gases in the magma expand due to the lower pressure
          Because of its viscosity, acid magma does not allow these gases to escape
          The gases build up and
eventually lead to
explosive eruptions
          Such eruptions generate
a lot of ash and cinders
Types of volcanoes
          The shape and size of the volcano formed depend on the nature of the lava and the way the lava erupted
          Types of volcanoes:
                 – Acid lava cone
                 – Basic lava cone
                 – Ash and cinder cone
                 – Composite volcano
Acid lava cone
          Volcano formed from acid lava
          Acid lava is viscous and solidifies quickly
          The lava is unable to move far away from the crater before it solidifies
          The volcano formed has steep sides and a narrow base
          A volcanic plug may be formed when viscous magma solidifies within the pipe of the volcano and is exposed after years of denudation
Basic lava cone
          Also called a shield volcano
          Basic lava is fluid and has high temperatures of between 1,100°C and 1,200°C
          The lava spreads far from the crater before solidifying
          The resultant volcano has a broad base and gentle slopes and is often
of low height
Case study: Hawaiian Islands
          The Hawaiian Islands in the Pacific Ocean are the tops of massive undersea shield volcanoes
          They were formed far away from the plate boundary as the Pacific Plate has been moving slowly over a hot spot
          Hot spots are fixed locations deep within the mantle from which columns of magma rise to the surface
          The magma rises to the surface by melting through the crust
          As the plate moves, the volcano over the hot spot is slowly carried away and eventually becomes extinct while a new one is formed in its place
          The hot spot is believed to be currently under the island of Hawaii, also known as the Big Island
          The entire Big Island is a shield volcano with three active peaks – Mauna Kea, Mauna Loa and Kilauea
Ash and cinder cone
          Acid lava tends to trap large amounts of gases, resulting in violent eruptions
          Volcanic rock fragments, called pyroclasts, are ejected with great force
          Ash refers to pyroclasts smaller than 4mm while the larger ones are called cinders
          Larger pyroclasts fall nearer the summit and form steep slopes
          Finer pyroclasts get blown
farther and form gentle slopes
Composite volcano
          Made up of alternate layers of viscous lava, and ash and cinders
          The gases trapped in the acid magma eventually lead to a violent eruption
          This ejects ash and cinders which settle around the crater
          The eruption clears the vent, allowing lava to flow out freely
          The lava cools and solidifies over the ash and cinders  deposited earlier
          Repeated eruptions of ash and cinders followed by lava flows build the composite volcano
          The violent eruptions may cause cracks along the sides of the volcano
          Lava may escape through these cracks, resulting in parasitic cones
          Mount Fuji in Japan and Mount Mayon in the Philippines are composite volcanoes
Distribution of vulcanicity
          Most volcanoes are located near convergent plate boundaries and coincide with earthquake zones
          There are also volcanoes in the Caribbean. Below are two shuttle radar maps of Grenada and St. Lucia showing the locations of volcanoes on the islands.
Case study: Montserrat eruptions
          Montserrat is one of the islands of the Lesser Antilles
          It is the result of the North American Plate subducting beneath the Caribbean Plate
          The Soufrière Hills volcano erupted violently in 1995, emitting ash and steam
          The eruption started a
series of larger eruptions
that lasted over two years
          19 people were killed
          The capital town of
Plymouth was destroyed

background of hep in tz


Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited (TANESCO) is a parastatal organization under the Ministry of Energy and Minerals. The Company generates, transmits, distributes and sells electricity to Tanzania Mainland and sells bulk power to the Zanzibar Electricity Corporation (ZECO) which in turn sells it to the public in islands_ Unguja and Pemba. TANESCO owns most of the electricity generating, transmitting and distributing facilities in Tanzania Mainland, which has an estimated population of 40.2 million people by July 2008 (World Fact Book).
The German colonialists established the first public electricity supply in Tanzania (which was then called Tanganyika) in 1908 at Dar es Salaam. It served the railway workshops and a part of the town where the colonialists were mostly staying. When the Tanganyika territory was mandated to Great Britain in 1920, a Government Electricity Department was formed to take over and operate the public supplies left by the Germans.
In 1931, the Government handed over the undertaking at Dar es Salaam and those elsewhere upcountry (Dodoma, Tabora and Kigoma) to private enterprises. One of these companies was the Tanganyika Electric supply Company Ltd. (TANESCO) which was established on 26th November 1931 and the other company was the Dar es Salaam and District Electric Supply Company Ltd (DARESCO).
TANESCO commenced operations in 1933 by operating a diesel power station at Kange in the outskirt of Tanga; by 1936 the company had constructed a dam 90m long across the Pangani River and had commissioned two generators totaling 5MW.  Concurrently with this, over 400km of supply lines were erected.  In 1947, 1952 and 1959 three more sets were installed, bringing the total capacity up to 17.5Mw, its present value.
By 1945 the major part of the assets of the company was invested in supplies to sisal industries in the area.  This “one-crop load” aspect of the supply entailed obvious risks and, in 1945, the company sought permission to export power to the port of Mombasa in Kenya, partly to diversify its customers.
By an agreement dated February 12, 1948, among the Tanganyika Government, the Kenya Government and TANESCO, TANESCO was authorized to export surplus power from the Pangani Falls power station to Mombasa, subject to certain conditions designed to safeguard supplies to consumers in the company’s Tanganyika concession.  The supply was provided by a transmission line some 135 km long erected on concrete poles. This contract was terminated in 1965.
DARESCO’s early years of operation were occupied in constructing a new power station at Kurasini in Dar es Salaam, upcountry i.e.1936 (Mwanza), 1937 (Moshi), 1944 (Arusha) and in the 1950’s new branches were established at Tabora, Dodoma, Mbeya, Iringa, Lindi, Mtwara and Morogoro.
After Tanganyika goes its independence on December 9, 1961, the government showed its interest to purchase shares from two private companies.
Between 1964 and 1975 the government purchases all the shares from the two companies.
Development and construction since independence
Immediately after Independence, TANESCO started planning new power projects in order to meet the increasing industrial, commercial and rural township power supply demands.  Studies to develop the country’s hydroelectric resource were commended in order to reduce the cost of generation using imported diesel oil.
Hale hydropower plant
In 1962, construction of the 21-MW Hale hydropower station on the Pangani River, upstream from Pangani Falls, was started, with an associated transmission line from hale to Dar es Salaam.  This power station was commissioned and formally opened by President Nyerere in 1964.  At the same time, supplies were extended to virtually all of the sisal estates in the Pangani area by the addition of branches at Kilosa, Kimamba and Lushoto.
Other small generation and transmission projects
In 1967, augmentation of the existing generation and distribution systems in several towns was commenced.  Construction of the Ubungo diesel power station in Dar es Salaam, to replace the old Kurasini plant, was completed in 1969.  In the same year, the 8MW Nyumba ya Mungu hydropower station on the headwaters of the Pangani River, and its associated transmission in 1969, while at Mwanza and Arusha extensions to the existing stations of 9MW and 6MW respectively were completed to Tanga by a 65km wood pole transmission line, and a transmission line to connect Morogoro to the line from Hale at Chalinze was also built.  The Moshi system was extended to Machame.  Various local extensions to the Dar es Salaam, Tanga and Morogoro systems were made to feed new industrial complexes and factories.
Electrification to rural areas and small townships
In 1965 the Tanzania Government declared a policy regarding electricity supplies to areas where economical operations were doubtful.  Under this policy, it was agreed that if TANESCO was required to provide power supply to townships which for some time might be uneconomic, then the company would be subsidized by either the Government, the local authority of prospective large consumers in the areas.  Following this policy decision, feasibility studies were conducted on several townships and subsequently the Government electricity installations at Nachingwea and Mpwapwa were taken over by TANESCO. New branches at Singida and Shinyanga were established and, in 1966, new power at Musoma and Tukuyu were commissioned.  In 1969 supplies to Mafia Island, Himo and Marangu were established.
Extension of the Moshi system to Machame District was completed in 1974 with the electrification of Chamwino, Ndurugumi, Kigwe, Kiabakari and Butiama Ujamaa villages. In 1970’s Handeni, Tarime/Utegi, Kahama, Nzega, Njombe, Babati, Kondoa, Sumbawanga, Tunduma, Same and Bagamoyo townships were electrified.
TANESCO and DARESCO decide to merge into a single organization to produce TANESCO, which exists today. It was in 1968 that the name Tanzania Electric Supply Company Limited was adapted. The Government is currently the sole shareholder in TANESCO.
Great Ruaha power project
In 1968 proposals to build the first large hydroelectric power station in Tanzania were accepted by the Tanzania Government and agreement to finance the project was reached among the Government, the World Bank and the Swedish International Development Authority. This development was at Kidatu on the Great Ruaha River, which was the implementation of the three phases Great Ruaha Power Project (GRPP).
Construction of the first phase started in 1969.  This involved a 40m high, rock-fill dam; and underground power station large enough to accommodated four 50MW machines; about 350km of high – voltage transmission line from Kidatu to Dar es Salaam; and the installation of two generating units to supply 100MW to the grid system.  Phase 1 of this project was commissioned in mid 1975 and inaugurated by President J.K Nyerere in the same year.
Phase 11 development of the Great Ruaha Power Project started in 1977 and involved the construction of a 45 m concrete dam at Mtera, 170km upstream from Kidatu, installation of the two remaining 50MW generating units at Kidatu power station; and the relocation of the Iringa/Dodoma road to pass over the Mtera dam.  These works were completed in early 1981.
Kidatu/Dar es salaam, Hale/Moshi and Kidatu - Iringa Mufindi transmission lines
Associated with the Kidatu development was the construction of 350 km of high voltage transmission line from Kidatu to Dar es Salaam to connect the power station to the coastal grid.  The line was financed by the Canadian and Tanzania Governments and was commissioned in 1975.
In order to connect the northern towns of Arusha and Moshi to the coastal grid system, a transmission line from Hale power station to the Kiyungi substation at Moshi was commissioned in 1975.  This was also financed by the Canadian and Tanzania Governments.
In 1979 work commenced on second major transmission line from the Kidatu power station.  This line, to be commissioned in 1983, runs westward to Iringa & then to the Mufindi pulp and paper mill.  It was planned to extend the line from Mufindi to Mbeya by 1984.
In 1976, through the Canadian International Development Agency, TANESCO Commissioned Acres International Limited of Canada as consulting engineers to develop a master plan for development of the electricity supply system for the next 30 years or so.  The plan will be periodically reviewed to ensure that it remains compatible with actual system growth, with revised load forecasts and with changing economic circumstances.
The installed capacity of the hydroelectric power station at Kidatu was doubled in 1980 and its capability was augmented by the construction of the storage dam and reservoir at Mtera, opened by President J.K Nyerere in February 1981.
In addition to building large hydropower stations to serve the transmission grid system, TANESCO has to continue upgrading its diesel powered units at isolated centers.  In 1983 new diesel power stations at Mbeya, Dodoma and Tabora were commissioned.  Six diesel sets were delivered in 1981 for installation at other existing stations, either to augment the installed capacity or to replace worn out units.
In 1992, the government of Tanzania established the Parastatal Sector Reform Commission (PSRC) whose main responsibilities were to ensure smooth privatisation of the public corporations with the aim of enhancing their efficiency. Since then the government has removed TANESCO’s monopoly as the sole power generating and distributing company.
TANESCO established a business planning process in 1996 and the first corporate business plan was out in 1997. The main objective of the Corporate Plan was to collectively assess and manage risks in aspiring to achieve organisational long-term goals. It helps management to assess the company’s capacity to survive shocks, to adapt to sudden change, and to capture new opportunities.
Manpower development and administration
Between 1964 and 1979 the number of employees rose from 1,406 to 4,481.  During the same period the percentage of Tanzania citizens rose from 87 to 99.5 while the percentage of Tanzanians in senior positions went from 19 to 99.2.  TANESCO is now fully Tanzanian.
Since then the government owned 100 percent of the shares.
As in June 17, 2010, TANESCO had 5645 employees, 4516 men and 1129. Casual labors are 294
By 1999 the government decided to unbundled and privatize TANESCO to promote efficiency, private sector participation and introduction of competition in electricity market. In 2005 the Board of Directors approved a ‘Ring fenced’ organizational structure which has Managing Director at the top, assisted by four General Managers.
In 2002 Net Group Solutions of South African, a private consultancy, was given a management services contract to run Tanesco, and in September 2004, under pressure from the World Bank, the contract was extended for a further two years, despite criticism of the high salaries paid to Net Group managers.
In 2006 the Tanzanian government decided not to renew the contract because of poor performance: “Tanzania was dissatisfied with the quality of management provided by Net Group Solutions and added th

Friday, January 3, 2014




Background of the Topic

Capitalist crisis refers
to the struggles or fighting among the European imperialist powers as a result
of the development of capitalism, after attaining the highest stage of imperialism
that involved the expansionism and aggrandizement among European nations,
capitalism had three key stages that is mercantilism,(15th C to 18th
C ), Competitive Capitalism (1750 – 1860s) and Monopoly capitalism (1860 – 21st

Because capitalism was
built on the ground of economic expansionism, capitalist crisis were inevitable
after attaining her zenith, every imperialist nation wanted to dominate the
other. The capitalist crisis included:-

v  First
World War (1914 – 1918)

v  Great
Economic Depression (1929 -1933)

v  Second
World War (1939 -1945)

I. First World War: Causes and Impact on Africa

Meaning: The First World War was a military conflict from 1914 to 1918 that
involved many countries of Europe as well as the US and other nations
throughout the World. It was one of the most violent and destructive wars in
the history of Europe and the world at large.

The First World War was
a pure imperialistic war because of her nature and motives of fighting, the
imperialist European powers wanted to re-divide the world market among
themselves, the war began on July 28, 1914 with the declaration of war by
Austria-Hungary on Serbia and hostilities between the Allied and Central Powers
continues until the signing of the armistice on November 11, 1918, the war lasted
for a period of years, 3 months and 14 days.

The War fought between
two antagonistic military camps, these were:-

entente which comprised of Britain, France and Russia
later alone USA, China, and    Serbia and other powers joined and became known as
Allied forces.

Alliance of German, Austria, Hungary and Italy which later joined by other nations like Turkey,
Bulgaria and became to be known as the Central Power.

The First World War
began as a local European war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia on July 28,
1914, was transformed into a general European struggle by Germany’s declaration
of war against Russia on August 1, 1914 and eventually became a global war
involving 32 nations.

The immediate cause of
the war between Austria-Hungary and Serbia was the assassination of Archduke
Francis Ferdinand and his wife Sophia by a Serb nationalist at Sarajevo in
Bosnia on June 28, 1914.


i. Formation of military alliance system/military camps.

These military unions of
the capitalist nations for self defense against any common enemy, within the
imperialist European nations to safe guard their imperialist economic
interests, it was agreed upon the camp-members that in case any member of the
camp is attacked, other members should come out and fight together.

ii. Development of militarism in Europe

This was the competition
of manufacturing military deadly weapons within the imperialist industrialized
European nations aimed at to achieving their imperialist motives of their respective

iii. The Balkan crises.

Many European
Imperialistic countries were interested in controlling the Balkans as their
colonies after the collapse of the Ottoman Empire, small and defense-less states
emerged in the Balkans which felled a prey to the big imperialistic nations who
wanted to control them.

iv. European Nationalism

Many European countries
joined this war to defend their national interest, example the assassination of
Archduke Ferdinand by the Serbian student was an act of nationalist to Serbia,
while the fighting to France was for nationalistic interest to regain Alsace
and Loraine from Germany, the same happened to Russia, Germany and Austria.

v. Russia and Germany expansionism

Russia wanted to control
all the Balkan states in Eastern Europe and form a stronger large Russian state
as well. Germany after her unification and underwent industrial revolution
under the leader of Keiser William II by 1905, Germany militarism and
imperialism reached the climax wanted to rule the whole world, with the
intention of conquering France and Russia first such conflicting interest
between Russia and Germany made the world peace at stake one had to fight the
other as to achieve her goals hence the outbreak of world war one in 1914.

vi. Revenge and suspicious

The First World war was
fought on two key principles among  the
imperialist nations, for instance France joined the war because she wanted to
revenge defeat of Franco-Prussian was with Germany of 1871 where she had lost
Alsace and Loraine, for Russia wanted to revenge German and Austria for taking
Balkans, Austria wanted to revenge assassination of Archduke Ferdinand.

vii. European balance of power

Every European country
wanted to maintain superiority over another military, economically, and politically,
this led to the outbreak of world war for stance Germany wanted to remain as
the lion of the land while Britain wanted to remain as the Shark of the sea
because it was very powerful on marine technology, such ideology made other
nation to struggle for recognition hence the world peace was at stake thus the
outbreak of world war in 1914 as to maintain their status quo and recognition.

viii. Assassination of Archduke Ferdinand and his wife

The assassination of
Ferdinand and his wife by the Serbian Student at Sarajevo was an immediate
cause of the outbreak of the First World War in 1914.

ix. Attack of Belgium by German

This was also the
immediate cause of the war as a military strategy Germany mobilizes and
stationed her troops in Belgium to blockade and fight French troops from
advancing, German attack on Belgium in August, 1914 made Britain quickly join
the war attacking German.


USA and other nations
joined the war in 1916. USA joined the First World War due to the following

  • Cultural relation between
    Britain and USA thus pressure from the people of USA to help Britain in
    the war forcing USA to join the war.
  • The role of USA president
    Woodrow to create World war peace in order to establish World body to
    maintain world security
  • The loan provided by USA
    to allied forces USA to help them to win the war so as they can be able to
    pay back.
  • The sinking of USA ships
    by Germany U boat, four USA ships that were carrying food and other
    supplies were sunk by Germany and a number of passengers were killed.


The First World War
brought the following effects on the lands of Africa.

1. Death and destruction of African properties

The war led to the destruction
of African properties especially African Agriculture and deaths of Africans who
participated in the war like in Libya, Somalia and Kenya.

2. Extreme exploitation

The aftermath of the
First World War led to intensive exploitation of African resources because the
European nations wanted to compensate what they had lost during the war.
Example, introduction of new taxes, forced labour, mineral extraction became

3. Great depression

The First World War led
to the Great Depression which victimized Africa economies that led to the fall
of the prices of cash crops which became a region to solve the problems of
great depression in Europe. Example prices of African agriculture produce
fallen, wages of social services reduced.

4. Fall of produce prices in African colonies

The war led to the fall
of producer prices because of severe financial crisis that faced the metropole
and colonies during the period of war.

5. Cut down of colonial government

Colonial Governments in
Africa cut down expenditures in social services were tremendously reduced
because of the severe financial constraints faced in the war period.

6. Rise of Welfare associations

The war led to the rise
of welfare associations in the colonies which were formed as a method to intensively
exploit African resources such welfare associations included Kilimanjaro Native
Planters, Bukoba Coffee growers, Bataka associations etc.

7. Introduction and development of colonial schemes.

The colonial governments
in Africa established different colonial schemes in order to generate big
qualities and quantity as to increase export in the metropole.

8. Rise of socialism in

10. Social miseries

The war led to social
misery in various parts of Africa where the war reached suffering caused by homelessness,
displacement, famine, diseases, fear and uncertainties.

11. Involvement of African into the War.

A lot of Africans were
recruited by the colonial powers to fight on their side so many Africans were
taken to work as cooks, porters, security guards and fighters; this led to
depopulation in Africa and sex imbalances.


Great depression is the
name given to the profound global economic crisis; the depression generally
refers to the economic crisis, the great depression generally refers to the
economic crisis that occurred in 1929 up to 1933 during the period of inter war
or it may be described as an economic disaster that originated from USA
following the collapse of New York stock exchange of the wall street on 19th
October, 1929.

 When the stock exchange market crashed in 1929
bank depositors worried that the bank would go bankrupt and rushed to withdraw
their deposited in cash, these runs on bank made many banks to fail, here depositors
besiege Merchants Bank in that made the beginning of the spread of the great


(i)        Existence of hyper inflation
(high depreciation of money) that facilitated to the collapse of the economies.

(ii)        Mass unemployment tremendous
and unprecedented surge in unemployment. The official figures are impressive,
peaking at around 6 million unemployed in Germany, 14 million in the United
States, and 2.7 million jobless in Britain due to  low economic activities.

(iii)       Social tensions increased
considerably, with a rising intolerance towards groups or individuals who were
perceived to be “economic rival” or “outsiders”. Many people began to blame
their neighbors for the economic collapse.

(iv)       Low purchasing power i.e. inability
of people to buy their basics and this was because of low economic activity.

(v)        Protectionism was by preventing
commodities from other nations, was applied as one of methods to prevent

(vi)       Starvation, famine and
malnutrition related diseases; the depression took a heavy toll on the physical
and mental health of society. In Hamburg, for example, over 50 per cent of all
young men were unemployed for more than two years and they were especially
hard-hit by the social and psychological.

Low production of industrial
goods and steady fall of price levels.

(viii)      Closure of financial
institution like banks because of low level economic activities.

(ix)        Wide spread of economic
depression in the world except Russia.

(x)         The depression also heightened
the division of experience between men and women. In some cases married women
workers were forced from the workplace by state legislation in a campaign
against so-called “double earners” (because their husbands also brought home a
wage packet.

(xi)       The failure of governments to
combat the depression effectively caused domestic politics to become
increasingly turbulent, in much of Central and Eastern Europe, as in the Weimar


(i)         First world war of 1914, this
war created an economic vacuum, where by during the war many European countries
were incurring high war expenditure while no production thus after the war the
European nations wanted to compensate the gap of production that occurred
during that period, which led to over production hence low prices on
agricultural and industrial products, hence low investment which led to mass
unemployment that brought low purchasing power that leads to poor welfare like
famine starvation and death thus great depression.

(ii)         Multi distribution of capitalist
economy or uneven distribution of national economy in the capitalist nations,
where by in pure, capitalist nation its only few individuals that happen to own
and control production for stance in USA by the time of great depression; it
was only 5% of the population that owned the economy, unlike, in socialism
economy thus any, withdraw of such people from investments it affects the
entire economy thus the collapse of New York stock exchange in 1929 led to the
investors to withdraw their money from the stock market which led to economic
depression of 1930s

(iii)       Heavy loans during the fighting
heavy debts from USA to France and Britain were acquired to facilitate the war
even after the war more debts were got from USA like financial loans to
reconstruct the war damaged European nations, the result was when the pressure
to repay loans and interests became greater particularly in Europe, it created
an economic situation where by huge sum of money begun flowing from Europe to
USA. This destroyed international trade, thus European nations couldn’t develop
but all of them depending on USA thus any problem on USA economy had to affect
the entire world.

War indemnity of Germany and
senseless cycle payment Germany was asked to pay huge indemnity or repatriation
of 6.5 billion dollars to the victor powers first of all this amount of money
was too huge for Germany which had just come from war that led to inflation,
and created senseless cycle payment where by Germany acquire loans from USA as
to pay Britain and France who wanted to repay the loans from USA, who borrowed
Germany thus a senseless cycle payment, that any thing that would affect UA
economy would affect the entire world economy hence the collapse of new York
stock exchange led to great economic depression.

(v)        The collapse of new York stock
exchange on 19th October 1929 this was the immediate cause of the great
depression, many investor in USA and out side USA had invested a lot in USA
stock exchange the fall of the prices of shares, made the investors to withdraw
their shares which led to low investment that led to closure of financial
institutions like banks and credit facilities, hence great depression.

(vi)       Absence of international
financial institution like, IMF and World Bank which would have acted as
advisor and regulators of economic and financial issues in the world, like
controlling inflation production, scarcity and financial regulation, etc, thus
its absence in I 930s led to the great economic depression.

(vii)      Over production of agriculture
and industrial products after the First World War, that period was
characterized with over production of agriculture and industrial out put both
in the periphery and in the metro pole, this led to the fall of prices of
output of industrial and agriculture, which discouraged production in the long
run, thus great economic depression.

(viii)     Political instabilities during
inter war period this, period did not enable many European nations to engage
into commodity production and international trade, it left little time for
European and USA to engage in economic activities which led to poor planning
that culminated into economic slump.

(ix)       Bolshevik revolution of 1917,
after under going the revolution Russia begun to under go command and central
controlled economy, which narrowed the world market that led to the piles of
goods with out market from America and in western European nations, hence
economic Great depression.

(x)         Poor economic policies like
protectionism were also responsible for great economic depression e.g. USA
during the inter war period practiced and pursued discriminative economic
policy against world economies she passed the “Mc Cumber tariff’ in 1922 to
shelter her economies ad against imports of nation wishing to export more

(xi)       The Collapse of the Austria
instalt credit bann that provided loans to European nations but collapsed in
May 1931 due to the withdraw on the French funds the financial crisis was
intensified in Europe.

(xii)      The Recovery programme after
world war one, the European nation begun to discriminate the USA goods the
European nation begun the recovery of agriculture sector which led to the
discriminating of agriculture products in USA that resulted the pile of goods
because of fewer buyers this affected the production and that marked the
beginning of the great depression.


  1. Fall
    of price commodity

great depression led to the decline of African cash crops tremendously like
cotton, coffee, sisal and cocoa because the demand at the metropole was also
very low the peasants and the European settlers, who were the chief producers
of such commodities almost abandoned the production.

  1. Decline
    in provision of social services

great depression led to the decline of provision of social services in Africa
whereby the colonial government was no longer interested in the investment of
social services because of severe financial crisis in Europe.

  1. Establishment
    of processing industries

establishment of processing industries like cotton ginneries, oil refinery as
to increase the qualitative and quantitative output in the metropolitan

  1. Intensive

governments in Africa increased exploitation of African resources. Example land
alienation was doubled, new taxes were introduced, forced labour and low wages,
this aimed at compensating the financial crisis that had affected their

  1. Region

great depression contributed to the regional imbalance of transport network
whereby railway lines and roads were constructed in areas where production was
high and in places that there was no transport network.

  1. Provision
    of low wages

great depression led the Colonial Governments to provide low wages especially
on colonial civil servants as to minimize colonial expenditures in the

  1. Mass

was mass unemployment in many colonies because the colonial government reduced
the number of workers so as to reduce colonial expenditure like primary
teachers, nurses, clerks and others.

  1. Development
    of migrant labours

the colonial governments increased plantation and increased labour reserves.
Example Rukwa, Kigoma, Dodoma in Tanganyika and Northern Uganda as well.

  1. Growth
    of food stuff

crisis contributed in putting more efforts in the production of food crops like
banana, soya beans, cassava, potatoes, millet because cash crops had fallen in

  1.  Increase in the import industrial

lot of industrial commodities were imported into the colonies as to decrease
the stock piles in the metropole that had lacked market during the period of
severe economic crisis.


  • There was an introduction and
    expansion in consolidating the peasant cooperative societies e.g. in 1932 the
    KNCU was formed, the Kagera coffee growers and many others with the aim to
    improve the production of cash crops.

  • They initiated grow more
    campaign in most African colonies by establishing more plantations and forced
    cropping e.g. in Tanganyika all able bodied men were supposed to work on
    plantations for 12 hours a day and all shops of wine pombe) were supposed to be
    closed during the day and only open in the evening. New development schemes
    were introduced like Ulugulu land usage scheme Mialo rehabilitation scheme
    Usukuma and Mbulu distocking.
  • The peasants in settlers
    economy like Kenya and Zimbabwe were allowed to cultivate the prohibited cash crops that had
    been preserved for the settlers like tea, coffee, cotton, etc this was aimed at
    increasing the quantity of cash crop production as to fill the gap in the
    metropole economies.
  •  African education syllabus and
    curriculum was changed as to respond with the need  of the metropolitan, emphasis was put
    on handcraft agriculture, and  vocational
    schools as to increase production and exploit African
    cheap labor as a solution to solve the great slump

  • The colonial government begun
    to intervene in agriculture sector by providing  subsidies, the settlers classify peasant, farmers, and
    provide them farming implements like hybrid seeds, fertilizers and packaging, to increase
    the quality and the quantity of the production.

  • The colonial government also
    begun to develop transport network like railway, harbors ,ports, so as to ease the transportation of the highly
    needed raw materials  in the metro pole.

  • Also the colonial government
    increased the activities in mining of gold diamond, copper, and exploitation of African cheap labour
    e.g. in Kenya the Kipande system was increased from 80 days to 160 per person annually.

  •  Intensification of labour
    recruiting bureaus were set to encourage and recruit migrate labour for stance SILABU in Tanganyika, railways
    were asset to transport labour force from labour reserves to

  • New taxation where introduced
    in the colonial state to increase colonial revenues  as well as to   encourage cheap labour of the Africans
    new taxes introduced included Hut tax poll tax, livestock tax

      among others.



World War 11, global
military conflict that, in terms of lives lost and material destruction, was
the most devastating war in human history. It began in 1939 as a European
conflict between Germany and an Anglo-French-Polish coalition but eventually
widened to include most of the nations of the world. It ended in1945, leaving a
new world order of the Superpowers dominated by the United States and the Union
of Soviet. Socialist Republics (USSR)

The Second World War,
reached in every part of the world in the five continents and in7 seas. More
than 50m people lost their lives in this disastrous war, more than 22m were
soldiers and more than 28rn were civilians. The real cause of this war is not
known but most historians concur that it was the combination of factors that
led to the outbreak of the World War II. The war begun between September 1939
to August 1945 .It was fought between the antagonistic imperialistic nations in
two camps, i.e. the Berlin —Rome Tokyo axis Vs the allied forces being led by
Britain, France, USA, Russia etc. The Berlin Rom Tokyo axis was defeated and

It was also unique in
modern times for the savagery of the military attacks unleashed against
civilians, and for the adopt [on by Nazi Germany of genocide (of Jews, Roma
[Gypsies], homosexuals, and other groups) as a specific war aim. The most
important determinants of its outcome were industrial capacity and personnel.
In the last stages of the war, two radically new weapons were introduced: the
long-range rocket and the atomic bomb.


(i)         The Versailles peace treaty of
1919, many world historian do agree that the seed that led to the Second World
War was sown during the Versailles peace settlement, the Versailles men, They
had reduced Germany to a military cipher and had reorganized Europe and the
world as they saw fit, this created more enemies than friends for example,
Hitler promised to overturn the Versailles Treaty, for .having humiliated
Germany to that extent, he secured additional support from Germany peasants,
Turkey, Italy, too were ill-treated by the treaty and opted to revenge. Thus
the outbreak of World War II in 1939

(ii)        Formation of hostile camps,
after the failure of league of nation Germany was very successful to create an
alliance with Italy, Tokyo, and Japan thus the Berlin —Rome —Tokyo axis which
forced France to form the Anglo French hegemony which was later on joined by
other countries and formed the allied forces versus central power, it was these
camps that the second world war was organized it provided confidence and
increase enmity between the military camps that made the war inevitable.

(iii)       Hitler and Mussolini foreign
policy, these were characterized by expansionism aggression hatred revenge and
domination, Adolf Hitler, the Führer (leader) of the German National Socialist
(Nazi) party, preached a brand of fascism predicated on anti-Semitism and
racism. Hitler promised to overturn the Versailles Treaty and secure additional
Lebensraum (living space) for the German people who, he contended, deserved
more as members of a superior race he wanted to make the capital of the world
to be at Berlin, this created the outbreak of the World War II when they
attempted to fulfill their desires e.g. 1935 Mussolini attacked Ethiopia, in
1938 Hitler attacked Austria, 1939 Hitler attacked Poland as that resulted the
outbreak of World War II.

(iv)       Military preparedness and
rearmament, when Hitler came to power in 1933 Having denounced the disarmament
clauses of the Versailles Treaty, created a new air force, and reintroduced
conscription, in March 1936 Hitler dispatched German troops into the Rhineland
he withdraw Germany from the league of nation and begun manufacturing more
weapons preparing for revenge, this act attracted other countries to do the
same thing, e.g. Britain France increased their military budget to prepare
weapons. Such military readiness brought tension which brought the war in 1939.

(v)        Imperialism, Germany begin the
war because he wanted to regain his lost imperial interest in Africa like in
Tanganyika as well as to get more colonies in Africa for Italy she fought to
get more colonies, to get more colonies and territories, France wanted to
maintain and defend her imperialistic gains from Germany, while Russia was
interested in the Balkans and Britain wanted to maintain her status-quo as the
shark of the sea with the colonial empire.

Extreme nationalism /ultra
nationalism Many European nations began to preach nationalistic ideologies that
brought excessive nationalism. Germany wanted to rule the whole world, Italy
wanted to form another Roman Empire, Japan wanted to control Asia such
nationalistic demands led the outbreak of World War II.

(vii)      Failure of the League of
Nations in her major task of maintaining world peace and security, During the
1920s, attempts were made to achieve a stable peace. The first was the
establishment (1920) of the League of Nations as a forum in which nations could
settle their dispute. The League’s powers were limited to persuasion and
various levels of moral and economic sanctions that the members were free to
carry out as they saw fit. Such weaknesses were responsible for the out break
of world war two.

(viii)     Chamberlain appeasement policy,
he was the prime minister of Britain who feared war he adopted appeasement
policy on Hitler as one of the way to keep him happy by giving him loans grants
pardoning Germany: debts and official visits which Hitler used as an
opportunity to concentrate and to by time as he prepared fore revenge, Britain
failed to punish Hitler for aggressing other nations.

(ix)        Attack of Poland by Germany,
this was the immediate cause of World War II on 2” Sept. 1939 at 11:00 am.
German troops entered Poland, Britain and French asked Hitler to withdraw from
Poland immediately but Hitler gave them a deaf ear. Britain declared war on
Germany and on the same, day France declared war on Germany. Thus the outbreak
of World War II.

American isolation policy led
to the out break of World War II after the end of world war two USA maintained
political isolation from the European nations, USA as a strong nation
militarily and economically was very significant to maintain the world peace,
The United States, disillusioned with the Treaty of Versailles, with the
selfish nature of Allied war aims, and with the secret treaties they had signed
during the war, disavowed the treaty and the League of Nations included in it,
and retreated into political isolationism. Being a neutral state USA would be
able to reconcile the vanquished and the victor powers but her political
isolation made the war to become inevitable in 1939.

The Spanish civil war in
1936-1939, Hitler tried out his new weapons on the side of right-wing military
rebels in the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). The venture brought him into
collaboration with Mussolini, who was also supporting the Spanish revolt after
having seized Ethiopia in the Italo-Ethiopian War of 1935-1936, treaties
between Germany, Italy, and Japan in 1936-1937 brought into being the
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis. The Axis Powers thereafter became the collective term
for those countries and their allies Germany and Italy used Spanish civil as
laboratory for testing their weapons, the weapons proved very effective that
made Italy and Germany to build confidence in themselves. Thus inspiring them
to wage a major war in order to realize their long term objectives like, to
regain their lost colonies, to dominant the world.


(i)        Involvement of Africa into the
war some African were recruited to fight on the behalf of their colonial power
for stance the British colonies recruited the king African riffles (KAR) to
fight on the side of the allied forces.

(ii)       It led to the rise of African
nationalism especially after the returning of ex-soldiers who begun to mobilize
their fellow Africans to fight against colonialism after getting awareness, it
was attributed both on internal and external forces.

(iii)      It led to the formation of UN
after the collapse of the League of Nations where by African countries become
members of UN especially those that became independent.

(iv)       Destruction of African
agriculture and economic activities since the war reached in African soil like
in Somali land, Kenya, Libya and other parts African property were destroyed

(v)        The aftermath of second world
led to the intensive exploitation of African resources by the colonialist as to
compensate the losses that they incurred during the war although this led to
large scale nationalism if Africa.

(vi)       The World War II led to the
rise of USA as leading capitalist nations which introduced open door policy Neo
colonialism as compensate what for having not colonized like European nations.

(vii)      It led to the spread of
socialist ideologies in Africa e.g. Some countries began to practice socialism
e.g. Ujamaa village in Tanganyika, commons mans charter in Uganda,
consciousness in Zambia etc.

(viii)     The Second World War led to
death and suffering since many Africans fought on the side of their colonial
master. Around 100,000 Africans were mobilized in East and southern Africa
whereby, many of them died, there was outbreak of diseases and hunger killed
many Africans.

(ix)       It led to the formation of None
Allied Movement (NAM) which was formed in 1955 in Bundug Indonesia whereby
neutral nations who did not belong in side, i.e. capitalism or communism.

(x)        Collapse of Italian colonialism
in Africa the war marked the end of Italian imperialism in Africa following the
defeat of central axis Italy lost her colonies of Libya and Eritrea.

(xi)       Transfer the mandatory
territories to the UN trust ship and the trust territories were put under the
supervision of the UN which included Tanganyika Namibia, Rwanda Burundi and
many others.

(xii)      Intensification of exploitation
in the colonies measures were taken in te colonies to increase raw materials in
the metro pole, a lot of exports were needed from the colonies were needed to
rebuild the war ruined Europe, for example new taxes were introduced, land
alienation, forced cropping, processing industries.

(xiii)     Development of rural urban
protest, which was attributed to extreme exploitation in the colonies mass
discontent was developed both in the rural and workers in the urban centers who
manifested in the form of strikes and riots

(xiv)     Introduction of new colonial
economic and social reforms and social policies in the colonies for example
import substation industries were encouraged in relation to education the
curriculum was changed and the emphasis was put on hand work and agriculture as
to envisage qualitative and quantitative production.

(xv)      Led to environment degradation
in the colonies. Was caused due to over use of the environment during that
period as to create enough commodity for export in the metro pole for example
land became exhausted.

(xvi)     State intervention in the colonial
economy. The colonial state became increasingly

in organizing coordinating and controlling commodity production in the colonies
where by it involved in marketing of export commodities by creating export
marketing boards, for Example Coffee marketing board in Kagera Lint marketing
board in Uganda.